Sejarah & Perkembangan Ilmu Dermatoglyphics

Fingerprint analysis (Dermatoglyphics) is a part of the biology, containing genetics and anatomy. Prints include loops and whorls on a finger, a palm and a foot that form and grow from a germinal layer starting from the 13th to 19th weeks in an embryo period. The fingerprint patterns are controlled by chromosomes, and geneticists have studied and proven that permutation of the prints is inherited. The number of ridges on a finger is decided by genes, which do not have dominant effect, rather than environmental influence.

John Evangelist Purkinji – 1823
In 1823, John Evangelist Purkinji, a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, published his thesis discussing 9 fingerprint patterns, but he too made no mention of the value of fingerprints for personal identification.

Sir William Hershel – 1856
The English first began using fingerprints in July of 1858, when Sir William Herschel, Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India, first used fingerprints on native contracts.

Dr. Henry Faulds – 1880
In 1880, Faulds forwarded an explanation of his classification system and a sample of the forms he had designed for recording inked impressions, to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, in advanced age and ill health, informed Dr. Faulds that he could be of no assistance to him, but promised to pass the materials on to his cousin, Francis Galton. Also in 1880, Dr. Faulds published an article in the Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle.

Gilbert Thompson – 1882
In 1882, Gilbert Thompson of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico, used his own fingerprints on a document to prevent forgery. This is the first known use of fingerprints in the United States.

Sir Francis Galton – 1888
A British anthropologist and a cousin of Charles Darwin, began his observations of fingerprints as a means of identification in the 1880's. In 1892, he published his book, "Fingerprints", establishing the individuality and permanence of fingerprints. The book included the first classification system for fingerprints.
Galton's primary interest in fingerprints was as an aid in determining heredity and racial background. He was able to scientifically prove what Herschel and Faulds already suspected: that fingerprints do not change over the course of an individual's lifetime, and that no two fingerprints are exactly the same. According to his calculations, the odds of two individual fingerprints being the same were 1 in 64 billion.
Galton identified the characteristics by which fingerprints can be identified. These same characteristics are basically still in use today, and are often referred to as Galton's Details.

1901 Introduction of fingerprints for criminal identification in England and Wales, using Galton's observations and revised by Sir Edward Richard Henry. Thus began the Henry Classification System, used even today in all English speaking countries.

1902 First systematic use of fingerprints in the U.S. by the New York Civil Service Commission for testing. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest pioneers U.S. fingerprinting.

1903 The New York State Prison system began the first systematic use of fingerprints in U.S. for criminals.

1905 saw the use of fingerprints for the U.S. Army. Two years later the U.S. Navy started, and was joined the next year by the Marine Corp. During the next 25 years more and more law enforcement agencies join in the use of fingerprints as a means of personal identification. Many of these agencies began sending copies of their fingerprint cards to the National Bureau of Criminal Identification, which was established by the International Association of Police Chiefs.

1924 An act of congress established the Identification Division of the F.B.I.. The National Bureau and Leavenworth consolidated to form the nucleus of the F.B.I. fingerprint files.

1926 Harold Cummins, M.D. Doctor Cummins is universally acknowledged as the Father of Dermatoglyphics. Harold studied all aspects of fingerprint analysis, from anthropology to genetics, from embryology to the study of malformed hands with from two to seven fingers.(13) He pulled together the diverse work of his predecessors, added original research and set the standards of the field still in force to the present.

1946 The F.B.I. had processed 100 million fingerprint cards in manually maintained files; and by 1971, 200 million cards. With the introduction of AFIS technology, the files were split into computerized criminal files and manually maintained civil files.

From 1970, a large number of professional papers related to the dermatoglyphics were issued, and have proven that dermatoglyphics cannot be replaced in both physiology and psychology with great observation. Dermatoglyphics which is remarkable and changeless is analyzed and proven with evidence in anthropology, genetics, and statistics

From 1992 to 1994 The professional papers about dermatoglyphics focused on particular genetic medicine fields such as sudden infant death syndrome, endometriosis, Alzheimer’s disease, auditory processing disorders, nasal cavities and tracheas, immunity diseases, Tuberculosis and down syndrome.

1999 The FBI had planned to stop using paper fingerprint cards inside their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg WV. IAFIS will initially have individual computerized fingerprint records for approximately 33 million criminals. Old paper fingerprint cards for the civil files are still manually maintained in a warehouse facility in Fairmont, WV. The FBI hopes to someday classify and file these cards so they can be of value for unknown casualty identification. James Jasinski, the FBI's program manager for IAFIS, said the new system should cut down the time to run the process fingerprint-based background checks to two hours in criminal cases. He said traditional fingerprint background checks can take from eight days to three months - too long for many officials who need background checks conducted quickly so they can make quick decisions on conducting investigations or setting bail.

2004 IBMBS- International Behavioral & Medical Biometrics Society
Nowadays the U.S., Japan or Taiwan apply dermatoglyphics to educational fields, expecting to improve teaching qualities and raising learning efficiency by knowing various learning styles.

Baca lainnya:

Next Prev home